Renpenning syndrome

Also known as: Golabi-Ito-Hall syndrome; Hamel cerebropalatocardiac syndrome; Porteous syndrome; Sutherland-Haan syndrome; X-linked intellectual deficit due to PQBP1 mutations; X-linked intellectual deficit, Renpenning type


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Renpenning syndrome is a disorder that almost exclusively affects males, causing developmental delay, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and distinctive physical features. Individuals with Renpenning syndrome typically have short stature and a small head size (microcephaly). Facial features characteristic of this disorder include a long, narrow face; outside corners of the eyes that point upward (upslanting palpebral fissures); a long, bulbous nose with a low-hanging separation between the nostrils (overhanging columella); a shortened space between the nose and mouth (philtrum); and cup-shaped ears. Males with Renpenning syndrome generally have small testes. Seizures and wasting away (atrophy) of muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) may also occur in this disorder.

About 20 percent of individuals with Renpenning syndrome also have other features, which may include a gap or split in structures that make up the eye (coloboma), an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), heart abnormalities, or malformations of the anus.

Certain combinations of the features that often occur in Renpenning syndrome are sometimes called by other names, such as Golabi-Ito-Hall syndrome or Sutherland-Haan syndrome. However, all these syndromes, which have the same genetic cause, are now generally grouped under the term Renpenning syndrome.

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Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome (XLMR, see this term) characterized by intellectual deficiency, microcephaly, leanness and mild short stature.

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Medical Term Other Names Description
Seizures Epilepsy Seizures are an intermittent abnormality of the central nervous system due to a sudden, excessive, disorderly discharge of cerebral neurons and characterized clinically by some combination of disturbance of sensation, loss of consciousness, impairment of psychic function, or convulsive movements. The term epilepsy is used to describe chronic, recurrent seizures.
Microcephaly small cranium, Decreased circumference of cranium, Small head, Small skull, Small head circumference, Reduced head circumference, Decreased size of cranium, Decreased size of skull, Abnormally small skull, Decreased size of head, Abnormally small cranium, small calvarium, Abnormally small head [more] Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Cleft palate Cleft of hard and soft palate, Palatoschisis, Uranostaphyloschisis [more] Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Short stature Decreased body height, Height less than 3rd percentile, Small stature, Stature below 3rd percentile [more] A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Cupped ear Capuchin ears, Simple, cup-shaped ears, Cup-shaped ears [more] Laterally protruding ear that lacks antihelical folding (including absence of inferior and superior crura).
Coloboma Ocular colobomas, Notched pupil A developmental defect characterized by a cleft of some portion of the eye or ocular adnexa.
Mild short stature Relative short stature A mild degree of short stature, more than -2 SD but not more than -3 SD from mean corrected for age and sex.
Decreased testicular size Small testis, Testicular hypoplasia, Hypoplastic testes, Small testes [more] Reduced volume of the testicle (the male gonad).
Global developmental delay Psychomotor developmental delay, Psychomotor retardation, Developmental delay, Lack of psychomotor development, Cognitive delay, Delayed intellectual development, Delayed milestones, Psychomotor development deficiency, Developmental retardation, Motor and developmental delay, Developmental delay in early childhood, Retarded psychomotor development, Retarded mental development, Delayed cognitive development, Retarded development, Delayed developmental milestones, Delayed development, Psychomotor development failure, Mental and motor retardation, Psychomotor delay, Delayed psychomotor development [more] A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Narrow face Decreased horizontal dimension of face, Thin facies, Decreased breadth of face, Decreased transverse dimension of face, Horizontal hypoplasia of face, Transverse hypoplasia of face, Narrow facies, Thin face, Decreased width of face [more] Bizygomatic (upper face) and bigonial (lower face) width are both more than 2 standard deviations below the mean (objective); or, an apparent reduction in the width of the upper and lower face (subjective).
Bulbous nose Bulbous nasal tip, Potato nose Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Upslanted palpebral fissure Mongoloid slant, Upward slanting palpebral fissures, Upslanting palpebral fissures, Upward slanting of the opening between the eyelids, Upward slanted palpebral fissures [more] The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Intellectual disability Nonprogressive intellectual disability, Poor school performance, Mental-retardation, Dull intelligence, Nonprogressive mental retardation, Mental deficiency, Mental retardation, nonspecific, Low intelligence [more] Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70.

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